My research goal is to understand movement mechanics in order to develop biofeedback technology and techniques that improve performance and reduce the risk of injury. My research uncovers an individual’s motor control solutions in light of physiological capabilities and task mechanical objectives. I focus on identifying how individuals control their bodies to achieve complex athletic maneuvers and activities of daily living. I have experience in studying a wide-spectrum of movement mechanics from clinical populations (e.g., older adult "fallers", pre-and-post-operative shoulder arthroplasty patients, etc.) to elite athletes (e.g., Paralympians, collegiate athletes, professional dancers).  

At Stevens Institute of Technology, we are currently seeking students who are interested in developing real-time sound/music biofeedback. Please click here for my faculty page for more information. 

Rush Motion Analysis Lab testing the feasibility of a scapula tracking grid system.

Rush Motion Analysis Lab testing the feasibility of a scapula tracking grid system.

As a Postdoc at University of Michigan, I worked with Professor Noel Perkins and his lab to further understand the dynamics of successful and unsuccessful performance of pedestrian and athletic maneuvers using inertial measurement units (IMUs). These IMUs are useful for studying the orientation and accelerations of body segments in real-world contexts (outside of the laboratory). For more information about this research, please visit: or our PLOS-ONE article. While at Michigan, I also led a multidisciplinary effort to create a biofeedback device that provides real-time sound feedback to dancers about pelvis alignment.

Please see below for other research interests and example biomechanics videos:


Effective translation of research findings to a performer entails comprehensive understanding of contextually-relevant feedback modalities. Therefore, I have been developing interactive auditory real-time feedback because it is an especially relevant feedback format for dancers performing turns. Sonified feedback for skill acquisition is a relatively new field, but it has the potential to augment clinical practices, in-field training, and at-home rehabilitation game design, especially during turning tasks. 

Why provide feedback during turns? Turns are fundamental to daily living and particularly challenging for clinical populations who struggle with maintaining balance. Additionally, for the application of interactive media within the gaming/ rehab industry, incorporating turning into gameplay is strategic for use in smaller spaces. 

Why use sound feedback? Visual feedback is the typical format used by biomechanists and clinicians. However, forcing the visual system to focus on a display during turning tasks could overtax the visual processing required during turning. Further, within my dissertation's focus, dancers are accustomed and attracted to interacting with musical cues, supporting sonified feedback as a contextually-relevant modality. 

Sonified feedback at the whole-body level: As part of my dissertation, I piloted sonifying reaction forces during a series of balance regulation and turning tasks in collaboration with interactive media designer, Vangelis Lympouridis. For instance, one dancer's most common error was to fall backwards during a turn when the reaction force was directed behind her for too long during that turn's initiation. Therefore, we designed a sound environment that encourages reaction forces directed in front of her by using harmonic sounds and discourages backward reaction forces using dissonant sounds.

Sonified feedback at the subsystem level: We are developing real-time interactive media focused on the improving the alignment of forces relative to body segments. For example, during turning tasks, loads are transmitted upward through the joints of the leg and if the mechanical demand imposed on these joints exceeds the individual’s control capabilities, the risk of injury will increase. However, reaction forces aligned with body segments reduce load imposed on joints and can be advantageous. Sonification can be used to encourage alignment between the leg’s segments and the reaction forces to simplify multijoint control requirements.